Kyle Klipowicz kyleklip at gmail.com
Thu May 17 23:19:46 CEST 2007

```This is great! I spent some time trying to do something similar last
summer, but eventually gave up due to troubles with the sustain logic.
Thanks for sharing!

~Kyle

On 5/17/07, Phil Stone <pkstone at ucdavis.edu> wrote:
> Greetings,
>
> I have been working on envelopes lately, and I have come up with
> something that I'd like to share. I started out with the basic ADSR in
> Miller's examples; I wanted variable envelope curves, but I didn't want
> the overhead of on-the-fly sqrt's or complex expr's. Therefore,
> [multiCurveAdsr] uses table-lookup for enveloping, with just one
> multiplication for level-scaling. The lookup table only needs to be
> computed when the "curve factor" is changed.
>
> Three basic curve types are possible. C (curve factor) = 1 gives the
> basic linear envelope. C > 1 gives a continuous range of fatter,
> "ead"-like envelopes. C < 1 is a special case; for any value of C less
> than 1, you get one "quadric"-like, hollow curve. (I really like the
> way this one sounds, by the way).
>
> The math in the [pd makeTable] subpatch is not elegant -- I took an
> empirical approach, tweaking things until I got the shapes I wanted --
> but it works well enough. One little hitch I ran into was that sustain
> level varied with different curve factors, so I made a corrective
> subpatch that keeps sustain values consistent across the different
> curves. This subpatch only comes into play when the sustain value or
> curve factor changes.
>
> The right output emits 1 on attack, and 0 after release is complete. I
> use this to switch~ the voice being enveloped, for further CPU-cycle
> economy.
>
> The help patch shows the effect of the different curve factors
> graphically. I don't think there are any dependencies outside of
> "Miller Vanilla" PD.
>
> I use [multiCurveAdsr] for my own synthesis abstractions, and find that
> it sounds pretty good, plus it's thrifty on CPU-usage, even with many
> voices. I hope somebody else finds it useful. Any suggestions for
> improvement will be greatly appreciated.
>
>
>
> Phil Stone
> Davis, CA
>
>
>
>
>
> #N canvas 522 22 653 582 10;
> #X obj 17 84 inlet;
> #X text 13 63 trigger;
> #X obj 17 132 sel 0;
> #X obj 221 316 del \\$2;
> #X obj 240 342 f \\$4;
> #X msg 17 172 stop;
> #X text 75 304 ATTACK;
> #X obj 240 525 outlet~;
> #X text 54 74 if zero;
> #X text 55 91 release;
> #X text 44 109 bang if attack;
> #X text 320 2 When you send this patch a nonzero trigger it schedules
> a line~ to do an attack and decay \, and if zero \, it starts the release
> ramp.;
> #X obj 240 413 vline~;
> #X obj 240 370 pack 0 0;
> #X obj 240 497 *~;
> #X obj 267 107 inlet A;
> #X obj 317 107 inlet D;
> #X obj 368 107 inlet S;
> #X obj 419 107 inlet R;
> #N canvas 0 22 490 340 graph1 0;
> #X array \\$0-envCurve 102 float 0;
> #X coords 0 1 101 0 100 100 1;
> #X restore 500 272 graph;
> #X text 604 364 0;
> #X text 603 264 1;
> #X text 192 341 DECAY;
> #X text 347 275 RELEASE;
> #X obj 141 130 f;
> #X obj 422 454 outlet switch;
> #X obj 389 322 pack 0 \\$5;
> #X obj 240 447 tabread4~ \\$0-envCurve;
> #X obj 422 428 r \\$0-activate;
> #X obj 133 182 s \\$0-activate;
> #X msg 105 156 1;
> #X obj 66 132 t b b b;
> #X obj 362 296 t b b;
> #X obj 363 357 del \\$5;
> #X msg 363 382 0;
> #X text 4 227 and release switch~;
> #X text 385 506 - when finished (i.e. \, end of release) \,;
> #X text 386 490 - on attack: send "on" for dsp of parent voice;
> #X text 395 520 send "off" for dsp of parent voice;
> #X text 384 475 This outlet may be used as follows:;
> #X obj 156 107 inlet attackLevel;
> #X obj 492 189 change;
> #X obj 502 136 loadbang;
> #N canvas 0 22 502 500 correctSustain 0;
> #X obj 174 233 f;
> #X obj 222 233 + 1;
> #X obj 129 294 tabread \\$0-envCurve;
> #X obj 53 7 inlet sustain;
> #X obj 63 439 outlet correctedSustain;
> #X obj 158 384 f;
> #X obj 143 7 inlet curve;
> #X obj 129 195 t f f;
> #X obj 174 209 b;
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> #X obj 129 354 sel 0;
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> #X obj 352 236 f;
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> #X obj 307 331 <=;
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> #X msg 75 190 100;
> #X obj 217 85 t b f;
> #X obj 53 59 f 0;
> #X obj 143 37 sel 1;
> #X obj 14 145 f;
> #X obj 143 63 t b b b;
> #X obj 53 33 change;
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> #X connect 1 0 0 1;
> #X connect 2 0 24 0;
> #X connect 3 0 39 0;
> #X connect 5 0 4 0;
> #X connect 6 0 36 0;
> #X connect 7 0 0 0;
> #X connect 7 1 9 0;
> #X connect 8 0 0 0;
> #X connect 9 0 24 1;
> #X connect 10 0 5 0;
> #X connect 10 1 8 0;
> #X connect 11 0 7 0;
> #X connect 12 0 11 1;
> #X connect 13 0 11 1;
> #X connect 14 0 20 0;
> #X connect 15 0 14 1;
> #X connect 16 0 14 1;
> #X connect 17 0 26 0;
> #X connect 18 0 31 0;
> #X connect 19 0 4 0;
> #X connect 20 0 17 0;
> #X connect 20 1 22 0;
> #X connect 21 0 17 0;
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> #X connect 24 0 10 0;
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> #X connect 25 1 21 0;
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> #X connect 26 1 19 1;
> #X connect 26 2 23 0;
> #X connect 27 0 2 0;
> #X connect 27 1 5 1;
> #X connect 27 2 1 0;
> #X connect 28 0 29 0;
> #X connect 28 1 32 0;
> #X connect 29 0 4 0;
> #X connect 30 0 13 0;
> #X connect 30 0 15 0;
> #X connect 30 1 16 0;
> #X connect 30 1 12 0;
> #X connect 31 0 25 0;
> #X connect 32 0 11 0;
> #X connect 32 0 14 0;
> #X connect 32 1 33 0;
> #X connect 33 0 4 0;
> #X connect 34 0 35 0;
> #X connect 34 1 30 0;
> #X connect 35 0 28 0;
> #X connect 35 0 37 1;
> #X connect 36 0 38 0;
> #X connect 36 1 34 0;
> #X connect 37 0 4 0;
> #X connect 38 0 37 0;
> #X connect 38 1 12 0;
> #X connect 38 2 15 0;
> #X connect 39 0 35 0;
> #X restore 323 150 pd correctSustain;
> #X obj 67 325 pack 100 \\$2;
> #X text 17 1 Multi-curve ADSR;
> #X obj 255 474 r \\$0-levelmult;
> #X obj 141 153 s \\$0-levelmult;
> #X text 452 36 Curve Factors;
> #X text 388 53 < 1 - "quadric-like" (hollow) curve \, C=-0.214;
> #X text 17 19 arguments: level \, attack time \, decay time \, sustain
> level (proportion of overall level 0 - 100) \, release time;
> #X obj 492 107 inlet curveFactor;
> #X text 388 83 > 1 - exponential (fat) curves \, varying with C;
> #X msg 502 159 1;
> #X text 118 58 This adsr uses table-lookup for envelope curves \,;
> #X text 119 73 so it should be pretty cpu-efficient.;
> #N canvas 547 29 564 445 2802-make-curve 0;
> #X msg 21 315 0;
> #X obj 104 115 - 1;
> #X msg 142 94 0;
> #X obj 142 120 f;
> #X obj 167 120 + 1;
> #X obj 71 224 f;
> #X obj 20 176 moses 2;
> #X obj 318 313 expr 1 - (pow( (\$f1 / 102) \, \$f2) );
> #X obj 285 158 t b f;
> #X obj 382 156 t b f;
> #X obj 318 287 spigot;
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> #X obj 351 262 1;
> #X obj 78 265 1;
> #X obj 104 265 0;
> #X obj 71 314 expr pow( (\$f1 / 102) \, \$f2) -1;
> #X text 115 296 "quadric-like" curve;
> #X text 361 294 exponential "fat" curve;
> #X msg 285 133 -0.214;
> #X obj 130 392 tabwrite \\$0-envCurve;
> #X obj 71 200 b;
> #X obj 130 363 f;
> #X obj 38 8 inlet curveFactor;
> #X msg 38 92 102;
> #X obj 25 118 sel 0;
> #X obj 69 116 f;
> #X obj 69 93 until;
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> #X obj 38 34 t b b b b f;
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> #X connect 2 0 3 1;
> #X connect 3 0 34 0;
> #X connect 4 0 3 1;
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> #X connect 8 0 12 0;
> #X connect 8 0 32 0;
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> #X connect 10 0 7 0;
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> #X connect 13 0 10 1;
> #X connect 14 0 11 1;
> #X connect 15 0 11 1;
> #X connect 16 0 22 0;
> #X connect 19 0 8 0;
> #X connect 21 0 5 0;
> #X connect 22 0 20 0;
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> #X connect 24 0 26 0;
> #X connect 25 0 27 1;
> #X connect 26 0 28 0;
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> #X connect 28 0 25 0;
> #X connect 28 1 5 1;
> #X connect 28 2 3 0;
> #X connect 28 3 1 0;
> #X connect 29 0 27 0;
> #X connect 29 1 24 0;
> #X connect 29 2 3 0;
> #X connect 29 3 2 0;
> #X connect 29 4 30 0;
> #X connect 30 0 33 0;
> #X connect 30 0 12 0;
> #X connect 30 0 15 0;
> #X connect 30 1 36 0;
> #X connect 31 0 35 0;
> #X connect 32 0 31 1;
> #X connect 33 0 31 1;
> #X connect 34 0 6 0;
> #X connect 34 1 31 0;
> #X connect 34 2 20 1;
> #X connect 34 3 4 0;
> #X connect 35 0 22 0;
> #X connect 36 0 19 0;
> #X connect 36 1 9 0;
> #X restore 492 220 pd \\$0-make-curve;
> #X text 399 68 1 - linear;
> #X text 2 212 cancel decay \,;
> #X connect 0 0 2 0;
> #X connect 2 0 5 0;
> #X connect 2 0 32 0;
> #X connect 2 1 31 0;
> #X connect 3 0 4 0;
> #X connect 4 0 13 0;
> #X connect 5 0 3 0;
> #X connect 5 0 33 0;
> #X connect 12 0 27 0;
> #X connect 13 0 12 0;
> #X connect 14 0 7 0;
> #X connect 15 0 3 1;
> #X connect 15 0 44 1;
> #X connect 16 0 13 1;
> #X connect 17 0 43 0;
> #X connect 18 0 26 1;
> #X connect 18 0 33 1;
> #X connect 24 0 47 0;
> #X connect 26 0 12 0;
> #X connect 27 0 14 0;
> #X connect 28 0 25 0;
> #X connect 30 0 29 0;
> #X connect 31 0 3 0;
> #X connect 31 0 44 0;
> #X connect 31 1 24 0;
> #X connect 31 2 30 0;
> #X connect 32 0 33 0;
> #X connect 32 1 26 0;
> #X connect 33 0 34 0;
> #X connect 34 0 25 0;
> #X connect 40 0 24 1;
> #X connect 41 0 56 0;
> #X connect 42 0 53 0;
> #X connect 43 0 4 1;
> #X connect 44 0 12 0;
> #X connect 46 0 14 1;
> #X connect 51 0 41 0;
> #X connect 51 0 43 1;
> #X connect 53 0 41 0;
>
> #N canvas 231 93 470 546 10;
> #N canvas 0 22 458 308 (subpatch) 0;
> #X array envelope 10000 float 2;
> #X coords 0 1 10000 0 400 140 1;
> #X restore 22 180 graph;
> #X obj 304 -173 loadbang;
> #X obj 138 -30 nbx 5 14 0 100 0 1 empty empty Level 0 -8 0 10 -262144
> -1 -1 1 256;
> #X obj 170 -1 nbx 5 14 0 3000 0 1 empty empty A 0 -8 0 10 -262144 -1
> -1 60 256;
> #X obj 200 30 nbx 5 14 0 2000 0 1 empty empty D 0 -8 0 10 -262144 -1
> -1 20 256;
> #X obj 232 60 nbx 5 14 0 100 0 1 empty empty S 0 -8 0 10 -262144 -1
> -1 51 256;
> #X obj 262 89 nbx 5 14 0 100 0 1 empty empty R 0 -8 0 10 -262144 -1
> -1 79 256;
> #X msg 304 -147 \; pd dsp 1;
> #X obj 41 -177 bng 15 250 50 0 empty empty empty 0 -6 0 10 -262144
> -1 -1;
> #X msg 80 -41 0;
> #X obj 80 -65 delay 200;
> #X obj 131 -88 nbx 5 14 -1e+37 1e+37 0 1 empty empty hold_time 0 -6
> 0 10 -262144 -1 -1 138 256;
> #X msg 41 -41 1;
> #X obj 96 153 tabwrite~ envelope;
> #X obj 311 122 nbx 5 14 0 20 0 1 empty empty curve_factor 0 -6 0 10
> -262144 -1 -1 0 256;
> #X obj 106 -185 notein;
> #X obj 106 -162 sel 0;
> #X obj 41 -159 t b b;
> #X obj 41 -4 t f b;
> #X obj 133 -139 t b f;
> #X obj 212 -97 / 127;
> #X obj 12 -201 loadbang;
> #X text 91 -208 Hit bang or MIDI key to see current envelope;
> #X text 293 -79 Curve Factors;
> #X text 229 -62 < 1 - "quadric-like" (hollow) curve \, C=-0.214;
> #X text 240 -47 1 - linear;
> #X text 229 -32 > 1 - exponential (fat) curves \, varying with C;
> #X obj 110 124 multiCurveAdsr 0.98 10 20 99 20;
> #X floatatom 316 159 5 0 0 0 - - -;
> #X text 350 155 for switch~ing parent;
> #X connect 1 0 7 0;
> #X connect 2 0 27 1;
> #X connect 3 0 27 2;
> #X connect 4 0 27 3;
> #X connect 5 0 27 4;
> #X connect 6 0 27 5;
> #X connect 8 0 17 0;
> #X connect 9 0 27 0;
> #X connect 10 0 9 0;
> #X connect 11 0 10 1;
> #X connect 12 0 18 0;
> #X connect 14 0 27 6;
> #X connect 15 1 16 0;
> #X connect 16 0 9 0;
> #X connect 16 1 19 0;
> #X connect 17 0 12 0;
> #X connect 17 1 10 0;
> #X connect 18 0 27 0;
> #X connect 18 1 13 0;
> #X connect 19 0 12 0;
> #X connect 19 1 20 0;
> #X connect 20 0 2 0;
> #X connect 21 0 17 0;
> #X connect 27 0 13 0;
> #X connect 27 1 28 0;
>
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